Agriculture is the art, science, and practice of growing various types of livestock and plants. Livestock is an animal that can be used for food, clothing, or other purposes. Professionals in the agricultural sector are known as agriculturists, who advise farmworkers and farmers. Agribusinesses and farms are the fundamental part of the agriculture business. Agriculture has been one of the earliest sectors of human industry and it continues to be one of the most important and multifaceted industries in terms of revenue generated. In terms of the value of income, agriculture generates more revenues than any other sector in India.
Agriculture has a large variety of crops grown, ranging from perishable crops like milk products to vegetables and fruit. Agriculture also involves farming land with different types of crops and land for human settlement such as towns and cities. Agriculture is a very important section of the economy with a total value of approximately Rs 47 lakh crore in India. The value of agricultural production has been increasing steadily over the years. Wheat, maize, pulses, sorghum, sugarcane, cotton, jute, and tea are major agricultural products grown in India.
The various agricultural products that are produced by different farmlands in India are cash crops (which are produced daily) and non-cash crops (which are produced periodically). Cash crops include crops such as vegetables, fruits, milk, cereals, poultry, beef, etc. Cattle and horses are also included in cash crops. Non-cash crops include tobacco, coffee, palm oil, rubber, steel, tin, coal, limestone, sand, sandstone, timber, peat, herbs, etc.
Various farm management techniques are applied on a farm to increase the production and quality of the products. Organic agriculture refers to an area of agriculture that has no synthetic intervention and has mainly depended on natural breeding methods. Artificial intercrops are used on a very small scale. They increase the yield of a crop but do not affect its nutritional quality. Non-organic agriculture develops crops based on traditional farming methods, in which the use of synthetic products is minimal. Modern techniques, new technologies, and inputs like pesticides, fertilizers, and herbicides are employed.
Agriculture is dependent on natural cycles and weather. Appropriate farming methods should be adopted to protect the environment and help farmers adapt to such conditions. Appropriate crop rotation techniques, usage of insecticides and fertilizers, proper irrigation, and efficient machinery should be used. Farmers should also take care that they grow crops in suitable soils, in seasons, under appropriate climatic conditions without any interference. Farmers should ensure that the soil quality is not damaged.
Agriculture plays a key role in building the economic and social infrastructure of a country. The farm products and services employ the people. Agriculture is a process by which land is transformed from arable to non-arable matter, increasing the productivity of the land. Agriculture not only helps in achieving economic growth but also ensures the safety of the people. With proper planning and management, agricultural production can become more efficient and increase the income of the farmers.